This module highlights the general positive and negative impacts of livestock and livestock management on the natural resources (air, water, soil vegetation), specifically under (sub)tropical conditions, at the plot to the watershed scale.

It discusses options for sustainable livestock-based land use, thereby building upon the beneficial impacts of animals on soils and plants. Management options for reducing negative environmental effects of livestock (gaseous emissions, nutrient excretion) are highlighted, and possibilities for consolidating the interests of livestock keepers with international conventions are discussed.

The students are introduced, in lectures, own reading and practical field tests to up-to-date quantitative and qualitative methods that are used in
studies on animal-environment interactions. Simple modelling approaches that depict animal-environment interactions at the plot level up to the watershed scale are presented and tested by the participants.